The Hindu Vocabulary (Lead Article – A hydro onslaught the Himalayas cannot take) – 03 September, 2021

  1. Hydro (noun) – a hydroelectric power plant.
  2. Onslaught (noun) – destructive attack.
  3. Hydel (noun) – short form of “hydroelectricity”.
  4. Hold true (phrase) – remain true, remain valid, to be applicable, to be valid.
  5. Bent on (adjective) – determined on, insistent on, fixed on, hell-bent on, firm about.
  6. Infrastructure (noun) – the basic physical or organisational structure for something (to function properly).  
  7. Fragile (adjective) – delicate, easily destroyed, weak, risky.
  8. Basin (noun) – the portion of land (geographical area) drained by a river and its tributaries (branch rivers). The states which are drained by a river and its tributaries are basin states. (drain simply means “flow” of water/any other liquid).
  9. Recurrent (adjective) – repeated, cyclical, regular.
  10. Anthropogenic (adjective) – referring to environmental change (like pollution) caused or influenced by people, either directly or indirectly.
  11. Valley (noun) – a low area between hills or mountains typically with a river running through it. 
  12. Silt (noun) – sediment, mud, remains/deposited earth.
  13. Debris (noun) – broken pieces, rubble, wreckage (of rock).
  14. Press on (verb) – continue, carry on (one’s action).
  15. Conservation (noun) – preservation, protection, careful management (of the natural resources).
  16. Affidavit (noun) – sworn statement, self-attestation, self-declaration.
  17. Hydroelectric (adjective) – relating to hydel power project that uses energy stored in water to produce electricity.
  18. Mandate (noun) – instruction, direction, order, requirement.
  19. Rejuvenation (noun) – restoration, revitalization, resurgence, revival.
  20. Cognisance (noun) – awareness, notice, knowledge, perception.
  21. Cognisance of (phrase) – notice, attend to, take into account, give attention to.
  22. Mushroom (verb) – increase, burgeon, grow, develop rapidly.
  23. Findings (noun) – conclusion, result; decision.
  24. Aggravate (verb) – increase, intensify, worsen, make worse, exacerbate, compound.
  25. Pave the way for (phrase) – clear the way for, make preparations for, put things in order for.
  26. Incalculable (adjective) – inestimable, indeterminable, immeasurable.
  27. Side-line (verb) – remove (from the centre of attention).
  28. Overwrite (verb) – replace old information/data with new information/data.
  29. In cahoots (phrase) – colluding, conspiring, collaborating secretly.
  30. Go ahead (phrasal verb) – proceed.
  31. Dire (adjective) – terrible, dreadful, appalling, shocking, grave, serious, woeful.
  32. Ecological (adjective) – environment-friendly, eco-friendly, natural.
  33. Regime (noun) – system.
  34. Reversal (noun) – turnaround, turnabout, changing, alteration.
  35. Aforementioned (adjective) – mentioned previously.
  36. Bizarre (adjective) – strange, unusual, unconventional/eccentric, ridiculous.
  37. Demarcation (noun) – distinction, differentiation; delimitation, definition.
  38. Devastative (adjective) – destructive, damaging, ruinous, disastrous, catastrophic.
  39. Pursue (verb) – engage in, conduct, take part in, take up (an activity).
  40. Sustainability (noun) – stability, reliability, longevity, constancy.
  41. In the long term (phrase) – over a long period of time; in the future.
  42. Cascading (adjective) – (of a large number of something) pouring, surging, flowing (in a series/sequence).
  43. Sustain (verb) – continue, keep up, maintain, preserve, conserve.
  44. Retreat (verb) – recoil, withdraw, move back, ebb, recede.
  45. Drought (noun) – dry spell, dry period, lack of rain, shortage of water.
  46. Sediment (noun) – silt, dregs, remains/deposited earth/mud.
  47. Paraglacial (noun) – referring to the changes in sediment yield that take place as a result of the presence, and then retreat, of glaciers in a landscape.
  48. Cloud burst (noun) – a sudden and very heavy rainfall.
  49. Devastation (noun) – destruction, damage, havoc/wreckage.
  50. Downstream (adverb) – (a community/area situated) in the direction in which a stream/river flows.
  51. Flash flood (noun) – inundation, swamping, deluge.
  52. Point out (phrasal verb) – identify, mention, indicate, draw attention to.
  53. Venture (noun) – project, scheme, undertaking, operation, activity.
  54. Adaptation (noun) – alteration, modification, adjustment, changing.
  55. With respect to (phrase) – concerning, regarding, relating to, with reference to.
  56. Discourse (noun) – discussion, conversation, communication, expression.
  57. Laden (adjective) – full, filled, packed, stuffed, loaded.
  58. Artefact (noun) – (in general) an object that is made by human workmanship, especially one of historical or archaeological interest. Artefact is the American spelling.
  59. Ecologist (noun) – an expert in ecology (the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment).
  60. Hydropower (noun) – power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water.
  61. Expose (verb) – put at risk of, put in jeopardy of, make vulnerable.
  62. Avalanche (noun) – sudden arrival or happening of something (in very large quantities) at the same time; snow slide, snow slip, landslide, landslip, flood, deluge, torrent.
  63. Landslide (noun) – a landslide is defined as the movement of a mass of rock, debris, or earth down a slope. Landslides are a type of “mass wasting,” which denotes any down-slope movement of soil and rock under the direct influence of gravity; landslip, rockfall, mudslide, earthfall/slip.
  64. Cliched (adjective) – ordinary, hackneyed, unremarkable.
  65. Deliberately (adverb) – intentionally, purposely, knowingly/wittingly.
  66. Contentious (adjective) – controversial, disputable, debatable. 
  67. Externality (noun) – consequence, result, outcome, effect, repercussion, reverberations.
  68. Displacement (noun) – a forced removal/departure of people from their homes, mainly due to war/natural disaster/persecution.
  69. Precarious (adjective) – risky, dangerous, unsafe; hazardous, perilous, unreliable.
  70. Proliferation (noun) – rapid increase, rise, escalation.
  71. Case in point (phrase) – example, instance, typical case, sample.
  72. Come/get in the way of (phrase) – obstruct, interfere, prevent, hamper, impede, thwart.
  73. Thrive on (phrasal verb) – flourish, grow vigorously, develop well, burgeon, do well, advance, make strides, succeed.
  74. Speculative (adjective) – risky, unsafe, uncertain, unpredictable.
  75. Brokering (noun) – negotiation, dealing. 
  76. Logistics (noun) – the process of planning & executing a complex operation; organization, planning, management, arrangement.
  77. Sink (verb) – go down (the surface). 
  78. Dry up (phrasal verb) – dwindle, wane, disappear, vanish.
  79. Spring (noun) – spring season. (the four seasons-spring, summer, fall/autumn, and winter).
  80. Fissure (noun) – gap/crack.
  81. Powerhouse (noun) – power station; (hydroelectric plant in this context).
  82. Wash away (phrasal verb) – (of water) to remove someone/something away to another place.
  83. Impending (adjective) – imminent, close at hand, about to happen, approaching, nearing/coming.
  84. Loom (verb) – emerge, appear, become visible, take a threatening shape.
  85. Loom large (phrase) – be imminent/close, about to happen (and something which has a lot of importance/attention).
  86. Catastrophe (noun) – disaster, mishap, crisis.
  87. Strike (verb) – happen/occur suddenly to have adverse effects on; affect, afflict, hit, come upon.
  88. Gigantic (adjective) – huge, wide, extensive.
  89. Backing (noun) – support, approval, endorsement, sanction.
  90. Preposterous (adjective) – absurd, ridiculous, foolish, stupid, crazy, insane, laughable, nonsensical, pointless, illogical.
  91. Render (verb) – make, cause to be, cause to become.
  92. Phenomenally (adverb) – exceptionally. 
  93. Imperative (adjective) – vitally important, necessary, essential, crucial/critical.
  94. Refrain from (verb) – stop oneself, abstain, desist from, hold back.
  95. Rapacious (adjective) – greedy, grasping, materialistic.
  96. Headstream (noun) – a source of a river.
  97. Unfettered (adjective) – unrestrained, unrestricted, unconstrained, free, unchecked, unconfined, uncontrolled.

Source : The Hindu Newspaper

Read Here : Editorial Link

Read : The Hindu Editorial Vocabulary (Noble intentions) – 03 September, 2021

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